1. Global justice as basis for sharing the benefits of science and scientific research.
2. International instruments on benefit sharing.
a. International Declaration of Human Genetic Data (2003)
b. Bonn Guidelines on Access to Genetic Resources and Fair and Equitable Sharing of the Benefits Arising out of their Utilization (2002)
c. Doha Declaration on the TRIPs Agreement and Public Health (2001)
d. Human Genome Organization (HUGO) Committee Statement on Benefit Sharing (2000)
e. Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights (1997)
3. Models of benefit-sharing agreements.
a. Fair and equitable options for research subjects.
b. Biopiracy and fair sharing of benefits of genetic resources.
c. Patents and intellectual property.
d. Valid options for promoting fair and equitable access to new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities or to products stemming from them.